**ANCOVA**, or

**is a test in statistics that is often implemented in computing packages. ANCOVA is a merger of ANOVA**

*an*alysis of*cova*rianceand regression for continuous variables. ANCOVA tests whether certain factors have an effect after controlling for quantitative predictors. The inclusion of covariates increases statistical power because it accounts for the variablity.

Equations

One-factor ANCOVA analysis

One factor analysis is appropriate when dealing with more than 3 populations; *k*populations. The single factor has

*k*levels equal to the

*k*populations.

*n*samples from each population are chosen random from their respective population.

**Calculating the Sum of Squared Deviates for the Independent Variable**

*X*and the Dependent Variable*Y*The sum of squared deviates (SS):

*S*

*S*

*T*

_{y},

*S*

*S*

*T*

*r*

_{y}, and

*S*

*S*

*E*

_{y}must be calculated using the following equations for the dependent variable,

*Y*. The SS for the covariate must also be calculated, the two necessary values are

*S*

*S*

*T*

_{x}and and

*S*

*S*

*E*

_{x}.

The total sum of squares determines the variablility of all the samples.

*n*

_{T}represents the total number of samples:

The sum of squares for treatments determines the variablity between populations or factors.

*n*

_{k}represents the number of factors:

The sum of squares for error determines the variability within each population or factor.

*n*

_{n}represents the number of samples with a given population:

The total sum of squares is equal to the sum of the sum of squares for treatments and the sum of squares for error:

*S*

*S*

*T*

_{y}=

*S*

*S*

*T*

*r*

_{y}+

*S*

*S*

*E*

_{y}

**Calculating the Covariance of**

*X*and*Y*The total sum of square covariates determines the covariance of

*X*and

*Y*within the all the data samples:

**Adjusting the**

*S**S**T*_{y}is the correlation between

*X*and

*Y*

The proportion of covariance is substracted from the dependent,

*S*

*S*

_{y}values:

*S*

*S*

*T*

*r*

_{yadj}=

*S*

*S*

*T*

_{y}[

*a*

*d*

*j*] −

*S*

*S*

*E*

_{y}[

*a*

*d*

*j*]

**Adjusting the means of each population**

*k*The mean of each popluation is adjusted in the following manner:

**Analysis Using Adjusted Sum of Squares Values**

Mean squares for treatments where

*d*

*f*

_{Tr}is equal to

*N*

_{T}−

*k*− 1.

*d*

*f*

_{Tr}is one less than in ANOVA to account for the convariance and

*d*

*f*

_{E}=

*k*− 1:

The F statistic

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